Saturday

Atrial Fibrillation CHADS2 Stroke Risk Index

CHADS2 Stroke Risk Index:
  • Risk prediction tool for stroke in patients with the heart rhythm disturbance, atrial fibrillation.
  • The CHADS2 (Congestive heart failure, Hypertension, Age, Diabetes, Stroke) index.
  • It assigns 1 point each for a history of heart failure, hypertension, age > 75 years, & diabetes mellitus.
  • 2 points is awarded for a history of stroke or transient ischemic attack (see table below).

Condition Points
C Congestive heart failure 1
H Hypertension (or treated hypertension) 1
A Age > 75 years 1
D Diabetes 1
S2 Prior stroke or TIA 2

Patient Assessment Based on CHADS2 Score:
  • Patients can be classified in to low, moderate or moderate/high risk for stroke.
  • Low risk (score 0).
  • Moderate risk (score 1).
  • Moderate/high risk (score 2 or greater).
  • The guidelines state that therapy with either warfarin or aspirin is reasonable for a patient with 1 moderate risk factor.
  • Predicted annual stroke risks for CHADS2 scores are shown in the table below.
Points Annual Stroke Risk 95% CI
0 1.9% 1.2-3.0
1 2.8% 2.0-3.8
2 4.0% 3.1-5.1
3 5.9% 4.6-7.3
4 8.5% 6.3-11.1
5 12.5% 8.2-17.5
6 18.2% 10.5-27.4

References:
Gage BF, Waterman AD, Shannon W, et al. Validation of clinical classification schemes for predicting stroke: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation. JAMA. 2001; 285:2864-2870.


Tags:

Age - Aspirin - Atrial Fibrillation - CHADS2 - Congestive Heart Failure - Diabetes Mellitus - Hypertension - Stroke - Stroke Risk Index - TIA - Warfarin


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Giant African Black Millipede (Archispirostreptus gigas) aka Shongololos

Giant African Black Millipede Facts:
  • This is the largest species of millipede - can grow to 38.6 centimetres (15.2 in).
  • African Giant Black Millipedes are extremely docile & thus can make good invertebrate pets.
  • Scientific name - Archispirostreptus gigas
  • Range - Tropical & sub-tropical western Africa
  • Diet - Eat bananas, tomatoes, melons, romaine lettuce, apples, cucumbers, and other fruits and vegetables.
  • Special dietary features - should have a supply of calcium added to their diet, i.e. calcium powder.
  • Environment - Terrestrial & also burrow.



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April 3 - Deaths

Calendar Date April 3rd:
April 3rd - Deaths:
963 – William III - Duke of Aquitaine (b. 915)
1287 – Pope Honorius IV - Pope for two years from 1285 to 1287 (b. c. 1210)
1350 – Eudes IV - Duke of Burgundy (b. 1295)
1606 – Charles Blount - 1st Earl of Devon, English politician (b. 1563)
1680 – Shivaji - founder of the Maratha Empire, India (b. 1630)
1682 – Bartolomé Estéban Murillo - Spanish painter (b. 1618)
1691 – Jean Petitot - Swiss enamel painter (b. 1608)
1695 – Melchior d'Hondecoeter - Dutch painter (b. c. 1636)
1717 – Jacques Ozanam - French mathematician (b. 1640)
1728 – James Anderson - Scottish lawyer (b. 1662)
1792 – George Pocock - British admiral (b. 1706)
1804 – Jędrzej Kitowicz - Polish priest
1827 – Ernst Chladni - German physicist (b. 1756)
1838 – François Carlo Antommarchi - French physician (b. 1780)
1849 – Juliusz Słowacki - Polish poet (b. 1809)
1868 – Franz Berwald - Swedish composer & inventor (b. 1796)
1882 – Jesse James - American outlaw (b. 1847)
1897 – Johannes Brahms - German composer (b. 1833)
1901 – Richard D'Oyly Carte - British impresario (b. 1844)
1930 – Emma Albani - Canadian soprano (b. 1847)
1936 – Bruno Hauptmann - German killer of Charles Lindbergh III (b. 1899)
1941 – Pál Teleki - Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1879)
1943 – Conrad Veidt - German actor (b. 1893)
1950 – Carter G. Woodson - African-American historian, author, journalist & founder of Black History Month (b. 1875)
1950 – Kurt Weill - German composer (b. 1900)
1952 – Miina Sillanpää - Finnish politician, first female Finnish minister (b. 1866)
1962 – Manolis Kalomiris - Greek classical composer (b. 1883)
1965 – Ernst Kirchweger - Austrian communist & resistance fighter
1971 – Joseph Valachi - American gangster (b. 1904)
1972 – Ferde Grofé - American composer (b. 1882)
1975 – Mary Ure - Scottish actress (b. 1933)
1978 – Ray Noble - English bandleader & composer (b. 1903)
1981 – Juan Trippe - Airline entrepreneur & pioneer, Pan Am founder (b. 1899)
1982 – Warren Oates - American character actor (b. 1928)
1986 – Peter Pears - English tenor (b. 1910)
1987 – Tom Sestak - American football player (b. 1936)
1988 – Milton Caniff - American cartoonist (Terry & the Pirates, Steve Canyon) (b. 1907)
1990 – Sarah Vaughan - American singer (b. 1924)
1991 – Charles Goren - American bridge player, writer, & columnist (b. 1901)
1991 – Graham Greene - English writer (b. 1904)
1993 – Pinky Lee - American comic & children's television host (b. 1907)
1994 – Frank Wells - American entertainment businessman (b. 1932)
1995 – Alfred J. Billes - Canadian businessman (Canadian Tire) (b. 1902)
1996 – Ron Brown - U.S. Secretary of Commerce (b. 1941)
1996 – Carl Stokes - Mayor of Cleveland, Ohio (b. 1927)
1998 – Mary Cartwright - English mathematician (b. 1900)
1999 – Lionel Bart - English composer (Oliver!) (b. 1930)
2000 – Terence McKenna - American writer & philosopher (b. 1946)
2002 – Fad Gadget - English singer & musician (b. 1956)
2003 – Michael Kelly - American journalist (b. 1957)
2004 – Gabriella Ferri - Italian singer (b. 1942)
2005 – Tony Croatto - Italian singer (b. 1940)
2005 – Jef Eygel - Belgian basketball player (b. 1933)
2007 – Marion Eames - Welsh novelist (b. 1921)
2007 – Eddie Robinson - American football coach (b. 1919)
2007 – Nina Wang - Asia's richest woman (b. 1937)
2008 – Hrvoje Ćustić - Croatian football player (b. 1983)


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April 3 - Births

Calendar Date April 3rd:
April 3rd - Births:
1151 – Igor Svyatoslavich - Ukrainian prince (d. 1202)
1367 – King Henry IV of England (d. 1413)
1529 – Michael Neander - German mathematician & astronomer (d. 1581)
1593 – George Herbert - English poet & orator (d. 1633)
1643 – Charles V - Duke of Lorraine, general of the Holy Roman Empire (d. 1690)
1683 – Mark Catesby - English naturalist (d. 1749)
1693 – George Edwards - English naturalist (d. 1773)
1715 – William Watson - English physician & scientist (d. 1787)
1764 – John Abernathy - English surgeon (d. 1831)
1769 – Christian Günther von Bernstorff - Danish & Prussian statesman & diplomat (d. 1835)
1770 – Theodoros Kolokotronis - Greek general (d. 1843)
1783 – Washington Irving - American author (d. 1859)
1806 – Ivan Kireevsky - Russian literary critic & philosopher (d. 1856)
1814 – Lorenzo Snow - 5th president of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS or Mormon Church) (d. 1901)
1821 – T. Pelham Dale - Anglican clergyman prosecuted for Ritualist practices in the 1870s (d. 1892)
1822 – Edward Everett Hale - American writer (d. 1909)
1823 – William Marcy Tweed - American political boss (d. 1878)
1823 – George Horatio Derby - Early American humorist (d. 1861)
1880 – Otto Weininger - Austrian philosopher (d. 1903)
1881 – Alcide De Gasperi - Prime Minister of Italy (d. 1954)
1885 – Allan Dwan - Canadian-born American film director (d. 1981)
1885 – Bud Fisher - American cartoonist (d. 1954)
1889 – Grigoraş Dinicu - Romanian composer & violinist (d. 1949)
1893 – Leslie Howard - English actor (d. 1943)
1893 – Princess Maud of Fife (d. 1945)
1895 – Mario Castelnuovo-Tedesco - Italian composer (d. 1968)
1897 – Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos - officer who served in World War I, the Minor Asia Campaign & World War II (d. 1989)
1898 – George Jessel - American comedian (d. 1981)
1898 – Henry Luce - American publisher (d. 1967)
1899 – David Jack - English footballer (d. 1958)
1904 – Iron Eyes Cody - American actor (d. 1999)
1904 – Sally Rand - American burlesque dancer (d. 1979)
1904 – Russel Wright - American industrial designer (d. 1976)
1905 – Robert Frederick Sink - United States Army Officer (d. 1965)
1911 – Stella Walsh - Polish Olympic athlete (d. 1980)
1912 – Gregoris Lambrakis - Greek politician, physician & athlete (d. 1963)
1913 – Per Borten - Premier of Norway (d. 2005)
1915 – Piet de Jong - Dutch politician, Prime Minister of the Netherlands from 1967 until 1971
1915 – İhsan Doğramacı - Turkish physician & academic (d. 2010)
1916 – Herb Caen - American newspaper columnist (d. 1997)
1918 – Louis Applebaum - Canadian composer, conductor & administrator (d. 2000)
1920 – John Demjanjuk - Ukrainian-born American auto worker, alleged Nazi
1920 – Stan Freeman - American composer & lyricist (d. 2001)
1921 – Robert Karvelas - American actor (d. 1991)
1921 – Darío Moreno - Turkish-Jewish singer & songwriter (d. 1968)
1921 – Jan Sterling - American actress (d. 2004)
1922 – Doris Day - American actress, singer & animal rights activist
1924 – Marlon Brando - American actor (d. 2004)
1925 – Tony Benn - British politician
1926 – Alex Grammas - American Major League Baseball coach, most notably for the Cincinnati Reds during the era of The Big Red Machine
1926 – Gus Grissom - American astronaut (d. 1967)
1928 – Don Gibson - American country musician (d. 2003)
1928 – Kevin Hagen - American actor (d. 2005)
1928 – Jennifer Paterson - English chef & TV personality (d. 1999)
1929 – Lee Leonard - American television personality
1929 – Poul Schlüter - Danish politician
1930 – Lawton Chiles - U.S. (Florida) Senator & Governor (d. 1998)
1930 – Helmut Kohl - Chancellor of Germany
1930 – Wally Moon - American baseball player
1933 – Bob Dornan - American politician
1934 – Jane Goodall - English zoologist
1936 – Scott LaFaro - American musician (d. 1961)
1936 – Jimmy McGriff - American jazz organist (d. 2008)
1938 – Jeff Barry - American songwriter & record producer
1939 – François de Roubaix - French film score composer (d. 1975)
1941 – Jan Berry - American musician (d. 2004)
1941 – Carl Boenish - American father of BASE jumping (d. 1984)
1941 – Eric Braeden - German-born actor
1941 – Philippé Wynne - American musician (d. 1984)
1942 – Marsha Mason - American actress
1942 – Wayne Newton - American singer
1942 – Marek Perepeczko - Polish actor (d. 2005)
1942 – Billy Joe Royal - American singer
1943 – Mario Lavista - Mexican composer
1943 – Jonathan Lynn - British actor & comedy writer
1943 – Richard Manuel - Canadian musician & songwriter (d. 1986)
1943 – Doreen Tracey - English-born Mouseketeer
1944 – Tony Orlando - American musician
1945 – Bernard Parent - Quebec ice hockey player
1945 – Catherine Spaak - French actress
1946 – Marisa Paredes - Spanish actress
1946 – Hanna Suchocka - Poland's first female prime minister
1948 – Arlette Cousture - French-Canadian writer
1948 – Carlos Salinas - President of Mexico
1949 – Lyle Alzado - American football player (d. 1992)
1949 – Anthony Grayling - British philosopher
1949 – Richard Thompson - English musician & songwriter
1950 – Sally Thomsett - English actress
1951 – Mick Mars - American musician, Mötley Crüe
1951 – Mel Schacher - American musician
1952 – Mike Moore - American politician & attorney
1953 – Craig Taubman - Jewish singer
1952 – K. Krishnasamy - Indian politician,Physician
1953 – Sandra Boynton - American greeting-card designer, illustrator, & author
1954 – Elisabetta Brusa - Italian composer
1955 – Hariharan - Indian singer
1956 – Miguel Bosé - Spanish musician & actor
1956 – Ray Combs - American game show host & comedian (d. 1996)
1956 – Boris Miljkovic - Serbian director
1958 – Alec Baldwin - American actor
1958 – Jaya Prada - Indian Actress
1959 – David Hyde Pierce - American actor
1960 – Arjen Anthony Lucassen - Dutch musician
1960 – Marie Denise Pelletier - Quebec singer
1961 – Eddie Murphy - American actor & comedian
1961 – Michalis Rakintzis - Greek songwriter & singer
1962 – Mike Ness - American musician
1962 – Jennifer Rubin - American actress
1963 – Criss Oliva - American musician (d. 1993)
1963 – Jack Del Rio - American football coach
1963 – Tsuyoshi Sekito - Japanese composer
1964 – Bjarne Riis - Danish cyclist
1964 – Andy Robinson - English rugby player
1965 – Nazia Hassan - South Asian pop singer (d. 2000)
1966 – Mina Tominaga - Japanese seiyu (voice actress)
1966 – John de Vries - Australian racing driver
1967 – Pervis Ellison - American basketball player
1967 – Brent Gilchrist - Canadian ice hockey player
1967 – Mark Skaife - Australian racing driver
1968 – Sebastian Bach - Canadian musician
1968 – Charlotte Coleman - English actress (d. 2001)
1968 – Jamie Hewlett - English illustrator
1969 – Lance Storm - Canadian wrestler
1971 – Picabo Street - American alpine ski champion
1972 – Jennie Garth - American actress
1972 – Sandrine Testud - French Top-10 tennis player
1973 – Jamie Bamber - English actor
1973 – Matthew Ferguson - Canadian actor
1975 – Shawn Bates - American ice hockey player
1975 – Michael Olowokandi - Nigerian basketball player
1975 – Aries Spears - American comedian
1975 – Yoshinobu Takahashi - Japanese baseball player
1975 – Koji Uehara - Japanese baseball player
1976 – Will Mellor - English actor
1976 – Drew Shirley - American musician (Switchfoot)
1978 – Matthew Goode - English actor
1978 – Tommy Haas - German tennis player
1978 – John Smit - South African rugby player
1979 – Grégoire - French singer-songwriter
1981 – Aaron Bertram - American musician
1981 – Matthew Nash - Australian footballer
1981 – Heath Ramsay - Australian Olympic swimmer
1981 – DeShawn Stevenson - American basketball player
1982 – Jared Allen - American football player
1982 – Fler - German rapper
1982 – Iain Fyfe - Australian footballer
1982 – Kasumi Nakane - Japanese gravure idol
1982 – Cobie Smulders - Canadian actress
1983 – Errol Barnett - English reporter
1983 – Ben Foster - English footballer
1984 – Jonathan Blondel - Belgian footballer
1984 – Maxi López - Argentine footballer
1985 – Jari-Matti Latvala - Finnish rally driver
1985 – Leona Lewis - English singer
1986 – Amanda Bynes - American actress
1986 – Sergio Sánchez - Spanish footballer
1987 – Jay Bruce - American baseball player
1987 – Park Jung Min - Korean singer (SS501)
1987 – Julie Sokolow - American musician
1987 – Sal Zizzo - American footballer
1988 – Peter Hartley - English footballer
1988 – Tim Krul - Dutch footballer
1989 – Israel Falou - Australian Rugby League player
1990 – Sotiris Ninis - Greek footballer
1992 – Yuliya Efimova - Russian swimmer


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April 3 - General (Calendar Date)

April 3rd - Basic Facts:
  • April 3 is the 91st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar.
  • There are 272 days remaining until the end of the year (273 in leap years).
  • The preceding day is April 2.
  • Next day is April 4.
April 3rd Births (Here)

April 3rd Deaths (Here)

April 3 Events:

1043 – Edward the Confessor is crowned King of England.
1077 – First Parliament of Friuli is created.
1559 – The Peace of Cateau-Cambrésis treaty is signed - ends the Italian Wars.
1834 – The generals in the Greek War of Independence stand trial for treason.
1860 – The first successful Pony Express in the United States running from Saint Joseph, Missouri to Sacramento, California begins.
1865 – Union forces capture Richmond, Virginia, the capital of the Confederate States (American Civil War).
1882 – Jesse James is killed by Robert Ford.
1885 – Gottlieb Daimler is granted a German patent for his engine design.
1895 – Oscar Wilde's libel trial begins - this results in him being imprisoned on charges of homosexuality.
1917 – Vladimir Lenin arrives in Russia from exile.
1922 – Joseph Stalin becomes the first General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.
1929 – The Cunard Line order RMS Queen Mary from John Brown & Company Shipbuilding & Engineering.
1936 – Bruno Richard Hauptmann is executed for the kidnapping & death of the baby son of pilot Charles Lindbergh (Charles Augustus Lindbergh II).
1942 – Japanese forces start assault on the United States & Filipino troops on the Bataan Peninsula (World War II).
1946 – Japanese Lt. General Masaharu Homma is executed in the Philippines for his role in leading the Bataan Death March.
1948 – President Harry S. Truman signs the Marshall Plan - $5 billion in aid for 16 countries.
1948 – Jeju massacre (civil-war-like period) in South Korea begins.
1956 – Hudsonville-Standale Tornado - F5 tornado.
1968 – Martin Luther King Jr. delivers his "I've Been to the Mountaintop" speech.
1969 – U.S. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird announces that the United States will start to "Vietnamize" the war effort (Vietnam War).
1973 – The first portable cell phone call is made in New York City.
1974 – The Super Outbreak occurs - biggest tornado outbreak in recorded history.
1975 – Anatoly Karpov becomes World Chess Champion by default when Bobby Fischer refuses to play in a chess match against him.
1982 – Naval task force is sent by the UK to the south Atlantic to reclaim the disputed Falkland Islands from Argentina.
1996 – Suspected US "Unabomber" Theodore Kaczynski is arrested at his cabin in Montana.
1997 – Thalit massacre begins in Algeria.
2000 – Antitrust Law case - United States v. Microsoft - Microsoft is found guilty of violating United States antitrust laws by keeping "an oppressive thumb" on its competitors.
2007 – French TGV train on the LGV Est high speed line sets an official new world speed record (Conventional-Train World Speed Record).
2008 – ATA Airlines, a large U.S. passenger airline, files for bankruptcy.
2009 – Australia formally adopts the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
2010 – Apple releases the iPad in the United States Of America.


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