Sunday

Dark Ages (Historical Period)


Dark Ages Details:
  • Period of chaos, destruction & rebuilding.
  • Period generally starting from the fall of Rome in the 5th Century (AD 476).
  • Period ending with the appearance of stable Germanic kingdoms & the development of knights in the 9th Century (AD 800).
  • Followed by the Medieval Period.
  • The idea of a Dark Age originates from Petrarch during the 1330s.
Image: Dark Age Battle
Tags: Chaos - Dark Ages - Medieval - Petrarch - Roman Empire - Rome -
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Supersede (Word Definition, Spelling and Mnemonic)

Supersede:
  • Comes from the Middle English superceden, to postpone.
  • The only word in the english language that ends in -sede.
  • Means to to take the place of or replace.
  • Can mean to discard or set aside as obsolete or inferior.
Supersede Mnemonic:
  • Super SEED with the ED Inverted = Supersede (mnemonic).


Super Dandelion Seeds:

Image: Super Dandelion Seeds.
Image source: from flickr by Aaron of NEPA (cc)
Tags: Mnemonic - Seed - Supersede
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Serfdom and Serfs


Serfdom Details:
  • Is a form of modified slavery.
  • They couldn't normally be sold away from the land.
  • They also could not leave the lord's land without permission.
  • Can also be thought of as tenant farmers who had to pay a percentage of their crops as rent, as well as fulfill other obligations to their landlord.
  • Quite common was the need for the serf to seek permission to marry or for one's children to marry.
Serf Versions:
  • Romans
  • German invaders
  • Medieval - altered by the advent of the Black Death.
  • Russian

Image: Laura the Serf.
Image source: from flickr by peterbasmalord (cc)
Tags: Black Death - Landlord - Marriage - Serf - Serfdom - Slave - Tenant Farmer
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Castles Of Wales Under Edward I


Castles Held & Strengthened by Edward I:
  • Aberystwyth Castle
  • Builth Castle
  • Cardigan Castle
  • Carmarthen Castle
  • Montgomery Castle
Edward I's New Built Castles Of North Wales:
  • Beaumaris Castle (pictured)
  • Caernarfon Castle
  • Conwy Castle
  • Flint Castle
  • Harlech Castle
  • Rhuddlan Castle
Castles Replaced by Edward I:
  • Deganwy Castle - replaced by Conwy Castle.
  • Dyserth Castle - replaced by Rhuddlan Castle.

Image: Beaumaris Castle.
Image source: from flickr by webmink (cc)
Tags: Castle - Edward I - Wales
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Friday

Demotic (Literary Definition)



Demotic Details:

Derived from or using the language of the common people.
Different from the more formal style of the priesthood or other elite educated people.

Related Terms:
Colloquialism
Vernacular

Image: Rosetta Stone (detail) - Hieroglyphs, with one line of Demotic Egyptian below.
Image source: from flickr by dwaas76 (cc)
Tags: Demotic - Educated - Egyptian - Elite - Hieroglyph - Language - Priesthood - Rosetta Stone
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