Sunday

Arnulf III, Count of Flanders (Arnulf the Unfortunate) 1055-1071

Arnulf III Demographics:
  • Names - Arnulf III, Count of Flanders; Arnulf the Unfortunate.[1]
  • Born - 1055
  • Death - 22 February, 1071 (at Battle of Kassel)
  • Father - Baldwin VI, Count of Flanders.
  • Mother - Richilde, Countess of Mons and Hainaut.
  • Occupation - Count of Flanders & Count of Hainaut, from 1070 till his death.
Arnulf III - Facts:
  • In the 11th century it was usual for 16 year old boys to fight in battle.
  • Arnulf died at the battle of Kassel whilst fighting against his uncle, 'Robert the Frisian'.
  • Arnulf III was the eldest son of Baldwin VI of Flanders & Richilde of Mons and Hainaut.
  • He succeeded to the title of Comte de Hainaut in 1070.[1]
  • He succeeded to the title of Comte de Flandre in 1070.[1]
  • With Arnulf's death, Flanders & Hainaut were separated again.

Reference:
[1] - John Morby, Dynasties of the World: a chronological and genealogical handbook (Oxford, Oxfordshire, U.K.: Oxford University Press, 1989).


Tags:
Arnulf III - Flanders - Battle of Kassel


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Traditional Blessing (Poem By Anonymous Writer) May There Always Be ...

Traditional Blessing (Scottish / Irish)

May there always be work for your hands to do.
May your purse always hold a coin or two.
May the sun always shine upon your window pane.
May a rainbow be certain to follow each rain.
May the hand of a friend always be near to you and
May God fill your heart with gladness to cheer you.


by Anon.


Tags:
Blessing - God - Irish - Rainbow - Scottish - Traditional


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Christmas Number One Singles (Music) United Kingdom


Christmas No 1 Single (UK) Background Facts:
  • The list below is of Christmas number one singles in the United Kingdom.
  • The Christmas number one single is that single at the top of the UK Singles Chart on the week before Christmas Day.
  • Positions of all songs are based on a week of sales, from Sunday to Saturday.
  • The official UK Singles Chart began in 1952, after appearing in the New Musical Express.
  • Recently (from 2005-2008) the winners of The X Factor UK have taken the number 1 spot.
  • In 2009 a campaign was started on Facebook.com to make Rage Against the Machine's (RATM) 1992 single "Killing in the Name" the winner.
  • The Facebook RATM campaign was successful at producing the UK Christmas number one with a download-only single.
Previous Christmas No 1 Single Winners (1952-2009):
  • 1952 - Al Martino - "Here in My Heart"
  • 1953 - Frankie Laine - "Answer Me"
  • 1954 - Winifred Atwell - "Let's Have Another Party"
  • 1955 - Dickie Valentine - "Christmas Alphabet"
  • 1956 - Johnnie Ray - "Just Walkin' in the Rain"
  • 1957 - Harry Belafonte - "Mary's Boy Child"
  • 1958 - Conway Twitty - "It's Only Make Believe"
  • 1959 - Emile Ford & The Checkmates - "What Do You Want to Make Those Eyes at Me For?"
  • 1960 - Cliff Richard & The Shadows - "I Love You"
  • 1961 - Danny Williams - "Moon River"
  • 1962 - Elvis Presley - "Return to Sender"
  • 1963 - The Beatles - "I Want to Hold Your Hand"
  • 1964 - The Beatles - "I Feel Fine"
  • 1965 - The Beatles - "Day Tripper" / "We Can Work It Out"
  • 1966 - Tom Jones - "Green Green Grass of Home"
  • 1967 - The Beatles - "Hello, Goodbye"
  • 1968 - The Scaffold - "Lily the Pink"
  • 1969 - Rolf Harris - "Two Little Boys"
  • 1970 - Dave Edmunds - "I Hear You Knocking"
  • 1971 - Benny Hill - "Ernie (The Fastest Milkman in the West)"
  • 1972 - Little Jimmy Osmond - "Long Haired Lover From Liverpool"
  • 1973 - Slade - "Merry Xmas Everybody"
  • 1974 - Mud - "Lonely This Christmas"
  • 1975 - Queen - "Bohemian Rhapsody"
  • 1976 - Johnny Mathis - "When A Child Is Born (Soleado)"
  • 1977 - Wings - "Mull of Kintyre" / "Girls' School"
  • 1978 - Boney M - "Mary's Boy Child" / "Oh My Lord"
  • 1979 - Pink Floyd - "Another Brick in the Wall (Part 2)"
  • 1980 - St Winifred's School Choir - "There's No-one Quite Like Grandma"
  • 1981 - The Human League - "Don't You Want Me"
  • 1982 - Renée and Renato - "Save Your Love"
  • 1983 - The Flying Pickets - "Only You"
  • 1984 - Band Aid - "Do They Know It's Christmas?"
  • 1985 - Shakin' Stevens - "Merry Christmas Everyone"
  • 1986 - Jackie Wilson - "Reet Petite"
  • 1987 - Pet Shop Boys - "Always on My Mind"
  • 1988 - Cliff Richard - "Mistletoe and Wine"
  • 1989 - Band Aid II - "Do They Know It's Christmas?"
  • 1990 - Cliff Richard - "Saviour's Day"
  • 1991 - Queen - "Bohemian Rhapsody" / "These Are the Days of Our Lives"
  • 1992 - Whitney Houston - "I Will Always Love You"
  • 1993 - Mr Blobby - "Mr Blobby"
  • 1994 - East 17 - "Stay Another Day"
  • 1995 - Michael Jackson - "Earth Song"
  • 1996 - Spice Girls - "2 Become 1"
  • 1997 - Spice Girls - "Too Much"
  • 1998 - Spice Girls - "Goodbye"
  • 1999 - Westlife - "I Have A Dream" / "Seasons in the Sun"
  • 2000 - Bob The Builder - "Can We Fix It?"
  • 2001 - Robbie Williams & Nicole Kidman - "Somethin' Stupid"
  • 2002 - Girls Aloud - "Sound of the Underground"
  • 2003 - Michael Andrews & Gary Jules - "Mad World"
  • 2004 - Band Aid 20 - "Do They Know It's Christmas?"
  • 2005 - Shayne Ward - "That's My Goal"
  • 2006 - Leona Lewis - "A Moment Like This"
  • 2007 - Leon Jackson - "When You Believe"
  • 2008 - Alexandra Burke - "Hallelujah"
  • 2009 - Rage Against the Machine (pictured) - "Killing in the Name"

Image Credit by Scott Penner (cc)

Tags:
Christmas Number One Single - Rage Against The Machine - UK - United Kingdom


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Aldgate (London City Gate, until 1761) History


Aldgate General Facts:
  • One of the 7 historic London City Gates through the London defensive wall from Roman times.
  • Was called Eastgate in the Saxon period.
  • Aldgate was the easternmost gateway through London Wall.
  • It lead from the City of London to Whitechapel & the east end of London.
  • The name is derived from Ale-gate, which literally means open to all.
  • Unlike at all other city entrances, no tolls were ever demanded at this gate.
  • The current form of the word, Aldgate, does not occur until 1486 - 1487.
  • Reconstruction of Roman Gateway at Aldgate (image opposite) - showing the double arch and an old cemetery (upper right).
Aldgate Local Hisory:
  • Believed that a gate at Aldgate was already spanning the road to Colchester in the Roman period, when the London City Wall itself was constructed.
  • Like many other Roman city gates, Aldgate had a double arch.
  • The gateway stood at the corner of the modern Duke's Place.
  • Rebuilt between 1108-47, & rebuilt again in 1215.
  • Jews settled to the north of the gate, beginning in 1181, until their expulsion in 1290 by King Edward I.
  • The area from this time became known as Old Jewry.
  • The Jews were later welcomed back by Oliver Cromwell, and again settled in the Aldgate area.
  • Whitechapel Bell Foundry was founded in Aldgate in about 1420, but was later moved to nearby Whitechapel.
  • Aldgate Pump was at the junction of Aldgate, Leadenhall Street, & Fenchurch Street.
  • The gate was reconstructed completely between 1607 & 1609.
  • Aldgate was finally demolished in the 1761 & briefly re-erected in Bethnal Green.
Aldgate Famous Occupants:
  • In 1374 Geoffrey Chaucer (when he was appointed Controller of Customs for hides, skins & wools) was granted a lease on a dwelling above Aldgate.

Image from Dick Schmitt (cc) with thanks.

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Bootlace Worm (Lineus longissimus) Marine Nemertean Worm


Bootlace Worm Biology Facts:
  • Bootlace worm (Lineus longissimus)
  • Belongs to phylum Nemertea (Nemertini or Nemertinea; ribbon worms).
  • The most common nemertean (ribbon worm) found along the coasts of Britain.
  • Lineus longissimus can be found on sandy shores, muddy shores, & in tide pools.
Bootlace Worm Classification (KPCOFGS):
  • Kingdom - Animalia
  • Phylum - Nermertea
  • Class - Anopla
  • Subclass - Heteronemertea
  • Family - Lineidae
  • Genus - Lineus
  • Species - longissimus
Bootlace Worm Behaviour:
  • Bootlace worms are free-living creatures which live on or in the sea floor.
  • Sometimes can be found curled up in rock pools or tangled up with seaweed.
  • Produces large amounts of thick mucus, when handled.
  • The mucous produced by the bootlace worm has a faint pungent smell.
  • The bootlace worm feeds using its evertable proboscis.
  • As it belongs to the class Anopla, the bootlace worm's proboscis is not armed with a barbed stylet.
  • Lineus longissimus immobilizes prey by using sticky filaments at the end of this proboscis, and also wrapping its body around animal.
Bootlace Worm History:
  • Described by Gunnerus, 1770.
Bootlace Worm Distribution:
  • The geographic range extends from Iceland eastwards to the Atlantic, North Sea & Baltic coasts of Europe.
  • Not found in the Mediterranean.
Bootlace Worm Description:
  • One of longest animals known.
  • Length - Reported up to 30 m; may grow as long as 60 m.
  • Width - 5 - 10 mm in width.
  • Colour - body is brown with lighter (longitudinal) stripes.
  • Cerebral ganglia - show pink to red through the epidermis.
  • Head - Rectangular head, with tip pale or whitish in colour & slightly bilobed.
  • Eyes - 10-20 deep-set reddish-brown or black eyes arranged in a row on each side of the snout.

Bootlace Worm (Lineus longissimus) image in Public Domain.

Tags:
Bootlace Worm - Lineus longissimus - Nemertea - Proboscis - Ribbon Worm


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