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Henry le Waleys (London Mayor, Merchant and Royal Servant) d. 1301-1302


Henry de Waleys Demographics:
  • Name - Henry de Waleys.
  • Origins - immigrant from Gascony.[12]
  • Birth - unknown.
  • Death - 1301 [6] or 1302 [2].
  • Occupation - London merchant, wine merchant [8] & royal servant, diplomat [10], alderman [10].
  • Saviour of Old London Bridge (image opposite) through lease income from London Stocks Market (1283).
  • Honours - Knighted by Edward I.
Henry de Waleys Facts:
  • Was a great & very wealthy merchant.
  • Sir Henry le Waleys made his fortune as wine merchant to the English Royal Household from 1252-1272.[10]
  • Mayor of Bordeaux in 1275.[6]
  • Lord mayor of London 1273-74, 1281-84 & 1297-99.[1]
  • Being an important revenue farmer for 6 new towns in the Bordeaux wine-growing district in 1284; he had the right to collect revenues for the king & enrich himself also.[10]
  • London Ward of Henry le Waleys is identified with Cornwainer Street Ward (q.v.).[3]
Henry de Waleys Politics:
  • Loyal supporter to the king, served Edward I (pictured) in many capacities.[9]
  • Henry de Waleys was known as a particularly “energetic” & “enterprising mayor,”.[4]
  • In 1274, Henry de Waleys swept the butchers' & fishmongers' stalls out of Cheapside 'in order that no refuse might be found remaining in Chepe on the arrival of his lordship the King'.[12]
  • The 2 most influential citizens of London at the end of the 13th century were Henry le Waleys & Gregory Rokesley.[7]
  • Member of "confrerie des jongleurs et bourgeois d'Arras" London Puy fraternity.[6]
  • Henry le Waleys gave the London Puy fraternity an annuity of 5 marks to maintain a chaplain at the Guildhall (built in 1299).[6]
Henry de Waleys Time Line:
  • 1252 - Became wine merchant to the royal household.
  • 1272 - Ended his role as wine merchant to the royal household.
  • 1273 - Became Mayor of London.
  • 1274 - Mayor of London.
  • 1274 - Swept the butchers' & fishmongers' stalls out of Cheapside.
  • 1275 - Mayor of Bordeaux.
  • 1281 - Mayor of London again (until 1284).
  • 1282 - London Stocks Market (located near the stocks) commenced.[11]
  • 1283 - Built a covered market 'le Stokkes' (for the sale of meat & fish), having secured a site adjoining St Mary Woolchurch, to improve the "economic infrastructure" [4]; with income from leasing the stalls being paid to the old London Bridge.[12]
  • 1284 - Finishes mayorship of London.
  • 1284 - Became an important revenue farmer for 6 new towns in the Bordeaux wine-growing district.
  • 1297 - Commences a 3rd term as London Mayor (until 1299).
  • 1299 - Finishes last term as London Mayor.
  • 1301 - Death [6]
  • 1302 - Death [2]

References:
1 - http://www.barryoneoff.co.uk/html/lord_mayors.html
2 - http://www.oxforddnb.com/index/101028460/
3 - http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.aspx?compid=63357#s20
4 - http://juh.sagepub.com/cgi/pdf_extract/33/6/1048
5 - Women, art, and patronage from Henry III to Edward III: 1216-1377. By Loveday Lewes Gee. Boydell Press; English & 196 edition (March 28, 2002)
6 - Sources and analogues of the Canterbury tales, Volume 1. By Robert M. Correale, Mary Hamel. Boydell & Brewer; 1st edition (December 1, 2003).
7 - The gilds and companies of London. By George Unwin. Frank Cass & Co. Ltd., London, UK.
8 - The history of the wine trade in England, Volume 1. By André Louis Simon. Kessinger Publishing, 2007.
9 - Edward I. By Michael Prestwich. 1988
10 - The power of scale: a global history approach. By John H. Bodley. M.E. Sharpe; illustrated edition edition (December 2002).
11 - Book Production and Publishing in Britain 1375-1475. By Jeremy Griffiths, Derek Pearsall. Cambridge University Press; 1 edition (September 3, 2007).
12 - London in the Later Middle Ages: Government and People 1200-1500. By Caroline M. Barron. Oxford University Press 2005.


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NASA WISE (Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer)


WISE Basic Facts:
  • NASA's Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer, or WISE.
  • Is NASA's newest spacecraft.
  • Blasted off from Vandenberg Air Force Base on a Delta II rocket at 6:09:33 a.m. local time (9:09 a.m. EST; 1409 GMT) on Monday 14 December 2009.
WISE Functions:
  • Will be able to survey the entire sky in infrared light.
  • It will circle the Earth over the North & South Poles.
  • This will be far superior to previous attempts at infrared surveys.
  • The last time the whole sky was mapped at these infrared wavelengths was 26 years ago.
  • Will have role in planetary protection by detecting some of the darkest near-Earth asteroids & comets.
  • The mission will last ~ 9 months & will have scanned the entire sky ~ 1.5 times.
Infrared Imaging:
  • Infrared spectrum cannot be seen by humans.
  • These are longer wavelengths than the visible spectrum.
  • Good for seeing objects that are cold, dusty or far away.
  • WISE's infrared measurements will enable better estimates of asteroid sizes & compositions.
  • It will be able to find the coolest of the "failed" stars, or brown dwarfs (tried to become stars but failed to ignite).
  • WISE has also been designed to detect ultraluminous infrared galaxies to a distance of 10 billion light years over the entire sky.
  • These infrared ultraluminous galaxies were previously discovered by the predecessor survey (Infrared Astronomical Satellite).
WISE Technology:
  • 1,460-pound spacecraft.
  • Contains a 16-inch telescope.
  • WISE contains 4 state-of-the-art infrared detectors, each containing one million pixels.
  • It will map the entire sky at each of these 4 infrared wavelengths.
  • Sensitivity of the detectors is 100s - 1000s times greater than the predecessors.
  • The WISE telescope will be able to image the glow from objects ranging from -330 degrees F to 1,300 degrees F.
  • To enable the WISE spacecraft to sense the infrared glow of stars & galaxies, it must not give off any detectable infrared light of its own.
  • The telescope & detectors on WISE are chilled to ultra-cold temperatures.
  • A large cryostat (Thermos bottle-like) tank surrounds the equipment, & is filled with frozen hydrogen.
  • WISE will only have ~ 9-10 months to perform its survey of the Universe before the frozen hydrogen has gone.
  • The coldest of the WISE's detectors will operate at below 8 Kelvin (minus 445 degrees Fahrenheit).
WISE Construction & Monitoring:
  • The $320 million project is managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory.
  • WISE will spend a month checking out its instruments before infrared scanning the sky for objects.
  • The scientific instrument was built by the Space Dynamics Laboratory from Logan, Utah.
  • The spacecraft was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp. from Boulder, Colorado.
  • The science operations & data processing will be at the Infrared Processing and Analysis Center (California Institute of Technology) in Pasadena.
WISE Instrument Cooperation:
  • The WISE spacecraft data will serve as navigation charts for other missions.
  • Specific WISE finds will be followed up by:
    • NASA's Hubble & Spitzer Space Telescopes
    • European Space Agency's Herschel Space Observatory.
    • NASA's upcoming Sofia & James Webb Space Telescope.

Image Credit NASA/JPL-CalTech


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Carib, Island Carib, Kalinago People (Anthropology)


Carib Basic Facts:
  • Carib, Island Carib, or Kalinago people.
  • Amerindian people whose origins are from the northern coast of South America, & southern West Indies.
  • They live in the Lesser Antilles islands.
  • A painting by John Gabriel Stedman in 1818 of a Carib family is shown opposite.
Carib History:
  • The Caribbean Sea was named after these people.
  • Caribs are thought to have migrated from the Orinoco River area in South America.
  • They settled in the Caribbean islands ~ 1200 CE, (based on carbon dating).
  • The Caribs were known to be skilled boatbuilders & sailors.
  • Carib dominance in the Caribbean region was largely down to their mastery of warfare though.
  • The Caribs were eventually displaced by the Europeans, mostly from Eurasian infections (they had no immunity), & also warfare.
The Black Caribs of St. Vincent:
  • Later known as Garifuna, were descended from enslaved Africans marooned from shipwrecks of slave ships.
  • Also some Africans escaped from enslavement to St. Vincent.
  • They intermarried with the Carib and formed the black Carib culture.
  • In 1795 British colonists transported the Black Carib to Roatan Island (off Honduras).
  • The black Carib descendants continue to live on Roatan Island, & are now known as the Garifuna ethnic group.
Carib Language:
  • Traditionally spoke either a Carib language or pidgin.
  • However, regular raids on other indigenous groups resulted in many female Arawak captives; so that many women spoke Kalhíphon (a Maipurean language, Arawakan).
Carib Patriarchy:
  • The early Carib culture was patriarchal in nature.
  • The important domestic duties, food & clothing provision, plus farming were all carried out by the women (see image of Carib woman in traditional dress opposite).
  • The women, with their children, also slept in separate houses from the men.
  • The women in Carib society were held in high esteem.
  • Also the island Carib society was more socially egalitarian than that of Taíno society.
Carib Religion:
  • The Carib are believed to have been polytheists.
  • The Kalingo religion, practiced by the Carib, had some features similar to Taino ancestor worship.
  • The Carib believed in an evil spirit called Maybouya.
  • Maybouya had to be placated for any person to escape harm.
  • The buyeis (shamans) were treated with great respect as they could cast spells to keep the Maybouya pacified, as well as heal the sick with herb preparations.
  • Also, the buyeis underwent special shaman training rather than become warriors.
  • Ceremonies conducted by the buyeis also contained sacrifices.
  • Tobacco was also smoked during religious rituals, as is the case with the Arawaks and other Native Americans.
  • The Kalinago religion had a tradition of keeping bones of their ancestors in their houses; believing that the ancestral spirits would look after the bones & protect their descendants.
The Carib & Alleged Cannibalism:
  • The Carib word karibna (meaning "person") became the origin of the English word "cannibal".
  • The cannabalism associated with Carib rituals was only related to the eating of war enemies, though some Europeans believed the Carib practiced general cannibalism.
  • There is no evidence that the Caribs ate humans to satisfy hunger.
  • When Christopher Columbus landed at Guadelope he noted evidence of what he understood to be cannibalism.
  • It is important to note that Queen Isabella (of Spain), in 1503 had ruled that only people who were better off under slavery (a definition including cannibals) could legally be taken as slaves.
  • This ruling gave Spaniards an incentive (plus legalistic pretext) for labeling some Amerindian racial groups (particularly the Carib) as cannibals so they could be enslaved & their lands also confiscated.

Images all in the Public Domain.


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Kings Play Chess On Flat Glass Surfaces (Mnemonic)


Kings Play Chess On Flat Glass Surfaces (KPCOFGS) is another mnemonic for remembering the classification of living organisms. See other Kings Play Chess mnemonics.

Kings - Kingdom
Play - Phylum
Chess - Class
On - Order
Flat - Family
Glass - Genus
Surfaces - Species

Related Links:


Image - Windows Flat Glass Surfaces by by Pulpolux !!! (cc)


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