Sunday

X Factor UK (2009) Live Show 8 Performances (28 November 2009)

X Factor UK 2009 Live Show 8

Take That & Elton John Week.

The performances must come from Take That (Part 1) & Elton John (Part 2).

Danyl Johnson - Songs - Relight My Fire - Your Song
Joseph McElderry - Songs - Could it Be Magic - Sorry Seems To Be
Lloyd Daniels - Songs - A Million Love Songs - I'm Still Standing
Olly Murs - Songs - Love Ain't Here Anymore - Night's Alright
Stacey Solomon - Songs - Rule The World - The Way You Look Tonight

Live Show 8 Performances:
Related Links:
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Asda (British Supermarket Retailer, ASDA)


ASDA Basic Facts:
  • British supermarket chain.
  • Retails - food, general merchandise, clothing, toys, books, electrical goods.
ASDA History:
  • Asda Stores Limited was founded in Leeds (in 1949) as Associated Dairies & Farm Stores Limited.
  • The Asda name occurred in 1965 following the merger of the Asquith chain of supermarkets & Associated Dairies.
  • Asda is an abbreviation of - Asquith and Dairies.
  • The dairy division was later sold in a management buyout & renamed Associated Fresh Foods.
ASDA Business Facts:
  • Asda became a subsidiary of the American retail giant Wal-Mart in 1999.
  • Asda is Wal-Mart's largest non-U.S. subsidiary
  • Asda is the second largest chain in the UK after Tesco.
  • Asda has based most of its marketing promotions on price.
  • This has lead to Asda promoting itself under the slogan Britain's Lowest Priced Supermarket.
  • Asda submits full accounts to Companies House each October.
  • Wal-Mart 'sold' Asda for £6.9 billion to their Leeds-based investment subsidiary Corinth Services Limited in August 2009.
  • This Wal-mart “group restructuring” still means Asda remains under the control of the Wal-Mart because Corinth are a subsidiary of Wal-Mart.
  • ASDA headquarters, Great Wilson Street, Leeds (pictured).
Image © Copyright RichTea (cc).

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Fish and Chip Shop (Food Retail)


Background History:
  • This food style originated in the United Kingdom.
  • The first recorded fish and chip shop was opened in London in 1860 (or 1865) by Jewish proprietor Joseph Malin.
  • Malin came upon the idea of "fish fried in the Jewish fashion", served with chips.
  • Fish and chips became a cheap food popular among the working classes in the latter 19th century following the rapid development of trawl fishing in the North Sea.
Modern History:
  • The modern fish-and-chip shop is also known as the "chippy" or "chipper" in modern British slang.
  • Historically, the smell associated with fish and chip frying led to the classification of fish-and-chip supply as an "offensive trade".
  • This stigma was only reversed during World War II, as fish and chips remained one of the few foods in the United Kingdom not subject to war-time rationing.
  • Modern fish and chip shops also sell other foods such as pies, fried chicken, saveloys, mushy peas, curry sauces etc.
Harry Ramsden & Fish-and-Chips:
  • An unpretentious fish and chip shop opened near Bradford, in Yorkshire, England in 1928.
  • The proprietor was a Harry Ramsden.
  • This little shop became a very famous fish & chip shop.
  • Harry Ramsden's is now the biggest fish and chip shop brand in the world.
Fish and Chips Popular Culture:

Image © michael ely (cc).

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Snowball (Iceball, Slushball) Earth Hypothesis


Snowball Earth Background:
  • Hypothesis that the Earth was entirely frozen over on 3 separate occasions (Marinoan, Sturtian, Kaigas) during the Cryogenian period (850-630 million years ago).
  • Evidence for the hypothesis comes from world glacial rock formations which date to the Cryogenian period.
Embryo Of An Idea By Mikhail Budyko:
  • Mikhail Budyko, a Russian climatologist, in the 1960s developed a climate model to investigate the effect of ice cover on global climate.
  • Budyko's results suggested that if ice sheets advanced far enough out of the polar regions a feedback ensued where the increased reflectiveness (albedo) of the ice led to further cooling & the formation of more ice.
  • Eventually the the entire Earth could be covered in ice and stabilized in a new ice-covered equilibrium.
  • Budyko (1969) concluded that this event could never happened, because his model suggested no way to escape from the simulated outcome. [1]
Snowball Earth Hypothesis Is Born:
  • "Snowball Earth" was first coined by Joseph Kirschvink (professor of geobiology at the California Institute of Technology) in 1992.[2]
  • The hypothesis was originally considered to help explain the apparent presence of glaciers at tropical latitudes.[3]
How did the Earth thaw out?
  • A recent report suggests that the Earth may have been more mudball than snowball.
  • It was hypothesised that CO2 levels may have risen during the snowball period, leading to a thaw in the Earth, though CO2 levels seem to have been too low for this.
  • Recent research suggests that areas with a higher level of volcanic dust or weathered rock, may have been able to absorb sunlight enough to cause a rewarming.[1]
Snowball Earth Relationship To Evolution:
  • Organism size & complexity increased markedly after the end of the Snowball Earth glaciations.
  • Evolutionary pressures may have been increased by "icehouse-hothouse" cycles, leading to multicellular organism development.
  • Fluctuations in nutrient levels and oxygen may have contributed to evolutionary selective pressures.
  • It is hypothesised that kin selection (with organ-like differentiation) may have been a driver for more complex life; this occurring at the expense of individual cell reproduction.
  • The evolutionary pressure producing high relatedness (i.e. kin selection) associated with glaciations may have helped overcome the reproductive cost of forming a complex animal.

References:
[1] - M.I. Budyko (1969). "Effect of solar radiation variation on climate of Earth". Tellus 21 (5): 611 – 1969.
[2] - Kirschvink, Joseph (1992). "Late Proterozoic low-latitude global glaciation: the Snowball Earth". in J. W. Schopf; C. Klein. The Proterozoic Biosphere: A Multidisciplinary Study. Cambridge University Press.
[3] - Harland, W.B. (1964). "Critical evidence for a great infra-Cambrian glaciation" (PDF). International Journal of Earth Sciences 54 (1): 45–61. http://www.springerlink.com/index/KW2790433113J4LX.pdf.
[4] - Dorian Abbot & Raymond Pierrehumbert (University of Chicago). Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, DOI: 10.1029/2009jd012007, in press.

Image Credits:
Albedo effect Nasa image (public domain)
Snowball Earth by guano (cc)


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