Sunday

Cosmic Latte (Average Colour Of The Universe)


The average colour of the universe has been calculated to be a beige colour (shown opposite) and named COSMIC LATTE.

Personally, Alchemipedia likes his invented name - DEEP SPEIGE - a portmanteau word of "Deep Space" & "Beige".

Basic Facts:
  • In 2002, Karl Glazebrook & Ivan Baldry reported that their survey of the colour of all light in the universe added up to a slightly beigeish white.
  • Their survey included more than 200,000 galaxies.
  • The hexadecimal value for this colour, Cosmic Latte, is #FFF8E7.
  • The study also revealed is that the majority of stars formed around 5 billion years ago.
  • The colour of the universe is also changing over time - shifting from blue to red.
  • The colour shift is because blue stars change to yellow & then to red giants, & eventually into black holes.
  • Glazebrook in a Washington Post article where the color was displayed jokingly said that he was looking for suggestions for naming this new colour.
  • Peter Drum came up with the name while sitting at a Starbucks coffee house, drinking a latte and reading the Washington Post article, where he noted that the displayed colour in the article resembled the colour of his latte.
Cosmic Latte Colour Coordinates:
  • Hex triplet .... #FFF8E7
  • RGB (r, g, b) ... (255, 248, 231)
  • HSV (h, s, v) ... (40°, 94%, 90%)

Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
Alchemipedia | Home | Index | AZ | Numbers | Years | Animals | Architecture | Art | Business | Fashion | Films | Food & Drink | Games | Health | History | Literature | Media | Music | People |Politics | Science | Sport | Technology | World |

Oseltamivir (Tamiflu, Antiviral Drug)


Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) Facts:
  • Antiviral drug that slows the spread of influenza virus between cells in the body.
  • It stops newly produced virus from chemically cutting (neuraminidase inhibitor) ties with its host cell.
  • Early treatment is important as neuraminidase protein inhibition is more effective within the first 48 hours.
  • Worldwide, from October 2009, only 39 of > 10,000 samples of 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine flu have shown resistance to Oseltamivir.
Oseltamivir Clinical Uses:
  • Prevention & treatment of influenzavirus A & influenzavirus B infection.
  • Oseltamivir is approved for use in persons age 1 year & over.
  • The usual adult dosage, for active infection, is 75 mg twice daily for 5 days.
  • The treatment should begin within 2 days of the appearance of flu symptoms.
  • Reduced doses are needed for children & people with kidney impairment.
  • Can be given as a preventive, i.e. community outbreak or close contact with flu case.
  • The prophylaxis dose is 75 mg once daily (people aged 13 years & older), safe & effective for up to 6 weeks.
Oseltamivir Pharmacology:
  • Taken orally as a pro-drug which becomes active after passing through the liver.
Oseltamivir Side Effects:
  • Common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (occurring in >1% of trial participants) include:
    • Abdominal pain
    • Diarrhea,
    • Headache
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
  • Rare ADRs include:
    • Anaphylaxis
    • Hepatitis & elevated liver enzymes
    • Rash
    • Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Oseltamivir Commercial Factors:
  • Sold under the trade name Tamiflu.
  • Developed by C.U. Kim, W. Lew and X. Chen of US based Gilead Sciences (hold patent until 2016).
  • Marketed worldwide by the pharmaceutical company Hoffmann–La Roche (Roche).
  • Marketed by Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., in Japan, which is > 50% owned by Roche.
Oseltamivir History:
  • First orally active neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed.

Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
Alchemipedia | Home | Index | AZ | Numbers | Years | Animals | Architecture | Art | Business | Fashion | Films | Food & Drink | Games | Health | History | Literature | Media | Music | People |Politics | Science | Sport | Technology | World |

H1N1 Influenza A Subtype (Virus Infection)

H1N1 Virology:
  • Influenza A (H1N1) virus is a subtype of influenzavirus A.
  • They are RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses).
  • Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans.
H1N1 Epidemiology:
  • Some strains of H1N1 are endemic in humans.
  • In 2006 H1N1 strains caused ~ 50% of all human flu infections.
  • There are also other H1N1 strains which are endemic in:
    • Pigs (swine influenza)
    • Birds (avian influenza)
  • Influenza A(H1N1) 2009 is a new virus & one to which most people have little or no immunity.
  • The virus is spread from person-to-person.
Clinical Features:
  • Signs of influenza A(H1N1) are flu-like.
  • Recognized symptoms include:
    • Cough
    • Fever
    • Headache
    • Muscle and joint pain
    • Runny nose
    • Sore throat
    • Vomiting & diarrhoea (sometimes)
  • Temperature is > 38 degrees Celsius
Important H1N1 Outbreaks:
2009 Flu Pandemic:
  • Announced in June 2009 by the World Health Organization (WHO).
  • Called "swine flu" by the public media outlets.


Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
Alchemipedia | Home | Index | AZ | Numbers | Years | Animals | Architecture | Art | Business | Fashion | Films | Food & Drink | Games | Health | History | Literature | Media | Music | People |Politics | Science | Sport | Technology | World |

Joanna Francisca Hurtado (from Montilla in Córdoba, Spain)

Joanna Francisca Hurtado Background Facts:
  • Joanna Francisca Hurtado was a young virgin from Montilla in Córdoba, Spain.
  • She developed 2 painful bubonic plague buboes in her groin.
  • 'Out of prudery' both she and her mother tried to conceal the buboes from their servants and also the neighbours.
  • Unfortunately, because of the contagious nature of the plague, within a few days, 2 of the family's servants died.
  • The other servants in the household, clearly frighted and upset, threatened to retaliate by burning all of the household possessions.
Francis Solanus performs a miracle:
  • Joanna Francisca Hurtado, ravaged with plague, continued to deteriorate and was on her deathbed 'with burning fever and delirium'.
  • Her relatives summoned Francis Solanus to the home to try and save the girl, and also calm the potentially serious servant revolt.
  • Saint Francis Solanus (he was canonized in 1726) "answered her relatives' devotion and restored the girl to health." [1]

References:
[1] - S.K. Cohn Jr (2002). The Black Death Transformed. Arnold, London.


Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
Alchemipedia | Home | Index | AZ | Numbers | Years | Animals | Architecture | Art | Business | Fashion | Films | Food & Drink | Games | Health | History | Literature | Media | Music | People |Politics | Science | Sport | Technology | World |

Ockham Village (Surrey, England)


Ockham Geography Facts:
  • Ockham is a tiny English village in Surrey, England.
  • It is situated near East Horsley, with other nearby villages including Effingham, Ripley & Wisley.
  • Ockham Common is the site of the disused Wisley Airfield.
  • Ockham also has a small church called "All Saints" (pictured).
  • Current population half size of that in 1887.
Ockham Historical Facts:
  • Ockham appears in Domesday Book (1086) as Bocheham.
  • There has also been a parish church in Ockham since Domesday times.
  • The church building today probably dates back to 13th century.
  • Ockham was also the birthplace of William of Ockham.
  • In 1887 the population of Ockham was recorded as being 549 people.
Famous Residents:
  • Ada Lovelace - Only legitimate child of poet Lord Byron, and computer wizard, lived at Ockham Park.
  • William of Ockham - Famous philosopher and originator of Occam's Razor.
Popular Culture & History:
  • In some respects the modern computer is said to have 'begun' in Ockham, as Ada Lovelace was writing programs for Charles Babbage in 1843.
  • The Ockham name is also used for the programing language known as 'Occam,' from William of Ockham's Occam's razor.

Image Credit - © Colin Smith (cc)

Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
Alchemipedia | Home | Index | AZ | Numbers | Years | Animals | Architecture | Art | Business | Fashion | Films | Food & Drink | Games | Health | History | Literature | Media | Music | People |Politics | Science | Sport | Technology | World |

Distinguished and Famous Franciscans


Famous Franciscans Background:
  • 'Franciscan' is a term referring to members of Catholic religious orders (Orders of Friars Minor) that follow regulations known as "The rule of St. Francis".
  • There are also (as well as Roman Catholic) some other small Old Catholic & Anglican communities which can be classed as Franciscan.
  • The Order of Friars Minor (formed 1209) is a mendicant religious order of men which can trace their origin back to Francis of Assisi (pictured, painting by Jusepe de Ribera).
Distinguished & Famous Franciscans:
  • Alexander of Hales
  • Anthony of Padua
  • Antoine Pagi
  • Bernardino of Siena
  • Berthold of Regensburg
  • Bonaventure
  • Cimabue
  • Dante
  • David of Augsburg
  • Francis of Assisi (pictured)
  • Francis Solanus
  • François Rabelais
  • Gabriele Allegra
  • Giotto
  • Giovanni da Pian del Carpini
  • Jacopone da Todi
  • John Duns Scotus
  • John of Capistrano
  • Luke Wadding
  • Mamerto Esquiú
  • Maximilian Kolbe
  • Michel Menot
  • Mychal F. Judge
  • Nicholas of Lyra
  • Oliver Maillard
  • Pio of Pietrelcina
  • Roger Bacon "Doctor of Wonders"
  • Thomas of Celano
  • William of Ockham

Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
Alchemipedia | Home | Index | AZ | Numbers | Years | Animals | Architecture | Art | Business | Fashion | Films | Food & Drink | Games | Health | History | Literature | Media | Music | People |Politics | Science | Sport | Technology | World |
 
Web Statistics