Saturday

Bookkeeper (Spelling Mnemonic)

This is a useful mnemonic for bookkeeper:

Triple doubles - oo kk ee - b(oo)(kk)(ee)per

Here are other spelling mnemonics.


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Salvino D'Amato of Florence (1258–1312)

Salvino D'Amato of Florence Demographics:
  • Name - Salvino D'Amato of Florence
  • Born - 1258 (exact day not known)
  • Died – 1312
  • Father - Armato of Florence
  • Residence - Florence, Italy
  • Nationality - Italian
Important Facts:
  • Credited with inventing eyeglasses.
  • Some historians doubt the authenticity of this claim though.
  • It is, however, fairly certain that spectacles were invented between 1280 & 1300 in Italy.
Source for the Salvino D'Amato of Florence credit:
  • Leopoldo del Migliore stated in his 1684 history of Florence that there was a memorial honouring D'Armati at the church of Santa Maria Maggiore.
  • The memorial bore the inscription - Here lies Salvino degl' Armati, son of Armato of Florence, inventor of eyeglasses. May God forgive his sins. A.D. 1317.
  • The tomb unfortunately no longer exists, so it has not been possible to verify this claim.

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Francesco Redi (Italian Physician, Poet) 1626-1697


Francesco Redi Demographics:
  • Name - Francesco Redi (see image)
  • Born - February 18, 1626 (Arezzo)
  • Died - March 1, 1697 (Pisa)
  • Occupation - Physician
  • Nationality - Italian
Important Facts:
  • Initially took a degree in medicine.
  • He then served as a tutor of the Colonna family in Rome for ~ 5 years.
  • Following this he moved to Florence, in 1654, to act as personal physician to the Grand dukes Ferdinand II & Cosimo III.
  • He was one of the first members of the Arcadia.
  • In 1666 he taught in the Studio at Florence, as lettore publico di lingua toscana.
  • His experiments, published in 1668 as Esperienze Intorno alla Generazione degl'Insetti (Experiments on the Generation of Insects) were some of the first evidence refuting "spontaneous generation" (Aristotelian abiogenesis).
  • Prior to these experiments it was thought that maggots formed naturally from rotting meat.
  • Redi, in 1676, wrote about important documents in his possession which pertained to the origins of eye glass invention and use.
  • A Mars crater is named after him.
Experiments on the Generation of Insects:
  • 6 jars were divided in 2 groups of 3.
  • The 1st jar of each group contained an unknown object.
  • The 2nd jar of each group contained a dead fish.
  • The 3rd jar of each group contained a raw chunk of veal.
  • The 1st group of three jars had the tops covered with fine gauze, allowing only air in.
  • The other 3 of jars were left open.
  • Maggots appeared in the open jars, which flies had been able to land on.
  • The gauze-covered jars had no maggots.
  • When dead flies were put in sealed jars with dead animals or veal, no maggots appeared.
  • When living flies were put in similar sealed jars, maggots appeared.
Other Skills:
  • Poet - renowned for writing Bacchus in Tuscany.
Works:
  • "Consulti medici"
  • "Esperienze intorno alla generazione degl' insetti"
  • "Osservazioni intorno alle vipere"
  • "Arianna Inferma"
  • "Bacco in Toscana"
  • "Lettere"

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Dagenham (London Borough of Barking and Dagenham, UK)


Dagenham Important Details:
  • Dagenham is a suburban town.
  • Located in the London Borough of Barking and Dagenham, in East London.
Dagenham Demographics:
  • Predominantly white working class (~85% of population was 'white' in last census).
Dagenham History:
  • First recorded in a charter of Barking Abbey (687 AD).
  • In 1205 Dagenham had a chaplain, with the Parish Church probably being built at around the same time.
  • Valence House, of the Fanshawe family, is the only surviving manor house of Dagenham which dates back to the 13th century.
Some Famous Dagenham Residents Include:

Related Links:
Greater London, City of London and the 32 London Boroughs



Image Credit -by Ben Terrett (cc)


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United Kingdom Citizenship Test

United Kingdom Official Practice Citizenship Test can be undertaken - HERE.
The practice test is presented in a format that closely resembles the Official Citizenship Test.

The Stationary Office (TSO) provides books, for purchase, that can help you to pass the test:
  • Life in the United Kingdom: A Journey to Citizenship Handbook - 2nd Edition
  • Life in the United Kingdom: Official Citizenship Test Study Guide
  • Passing the Life in the UK Test: Official Practice Questions and Answers

References:

The Stationary Office (TSO) - http://www.tso.co.uk/



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Census (United Kingdom)

Important Facts:
  • Census information is confidential and anonymous.
  • The information can only be released to the public after 100 years.


References:
[1] - Page 36 of the 'Life in the United Kingdom: A Journey to Citizenship' Handbook.



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European Parliament (European Union)

The European Parliament meets in the 2 following places:[1]
  • Brussels
  • Strasbourg


References:
[1] - Page 53 of the 'Life in the United Kingdom: A Journey to Citizenship' Handbook.



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Whale Galaxy (NGC 4631, Astronomy)


Background Facts:
  • Name - NGC 4631 or Whale Galaxy.
  • Appearance - looks like a fish (herring) or whale.
Astronomy Facts:
  • Spiral galaxy towards the small northern constellation Canes Venatici.
  • Seen edge-on from earth.
  • Only 25 million light-years away.
  • Similar in size to our own Milky Way.
  • Contains a central starburst, i.e. intense star formation.
  • The evidence for strong star formation comes from the detection of the emission spectrum for ionized hydrogen.
  • It is known that massive stars, that form in star formation regions, only burn hydrogen gas through fusion for a short period of time.
  • Following this initial hydrogen gas consumption the massive stars explode as supernovae.
  • There have been so many supernovae which have exploded in the center of NGC 4631 that it is blowing gas out of the plane of the galaxy producing a superwind.

Image Credit - by Anttler public domain.


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