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Procacity (Word Definition)

Procacity Definition:
  • Forwardness; pertness; petulance.
Procacity Basic Facts:
  • Noun.
  • From the Latin procacitas.
Procacity Phrase:
  • "The actress is well known for her procacity."

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Foster Scale (Calamity Magnitude Scale)

Foster Scale Basic Facts:
  • Novel method of quantifying disasters.
  • Devised by Harold D. Foster.
  • A kind of Richter scale of human disaster.
  • The scale tries to quantify the impact of varying types of disaster through their capacity to generate stress.
  • Can be measured as units of "stress", or by the Foster Scale ("Calamity Magnitude Scale") which is logarithmic, i.e. a 1 point increase in the scale is the same as the event being 10 times more severe.
Foster Scale Results:
  • World War II is the worst catastrophe in recorded memory according to the Foster Scale (magnitude 11.1).
  • World War II produced more death, physical damage, and emotional suffering than any other event in history.
  • Black Death (Bubonic Plague 1347-1351) comes out as the second worst catastrophe in history (Foster Scale magnitude 10.9), with World War I in third place (Foster Scale magnitude 10.5).
Tags:
Black Death - Bubonic Plague - Calamity - Disaster - Foster Scale - Harold D. Foster - Logarithmic - Richter Scale - Suffering - World War I - World War II -

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Battle of Crécy (Cressy) 1346


Battle of Crécy (1346) took place near Crécy in northern France. Part of the Hundred Years War.

Won by Edward III and the Black Prince over Philippe VI of France on August 26, 1346.

The Battle of Crécy established the military supremacy of the English / Welsh longbow over the French combination of crossbow & armoured knights. After the Battle of Crécy, Edward III went on to besiege the city of Calais. The besieged city surrendered to Edward after eleven months, allowing the establishment of an English base in northern France.

Image Credit


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Agnolo di Tura del Grasso (Chronicler, 14th Century Siena)

Demographics:
  • Name - Agnolo di Tura del Grasso
  • Lived - 14th entury.
  • Wife - Nicoluccia (died from Black Death)
  • Children - 5 children (died from Black Death)
  • Occupation - Chronicler, shoemaker & tax collector.
Agnolo de Tura Facts:
  • Lived in the 14th Century.
  • Was a chronicler from Siena, Italy.
  • De Tura was also a shoemaker & tax collector.
  • Was also known as Agnolo the Fat.
  • Agnolo di Tura was determined to increase his standing in the world.
  • As a hard-working man he rose from the lower classes into the upper middle class prior to the Black Death.
  • Married a women called Nicoluccia, who was of a higher class than himself.
  • Agnolo di Tura & Nicoluccia had five children together.
  • Unfortunately his wife and 5 children died during the Black Death.
  • Agnolo di Tura survived through the pestilence (Black Death) and remarried.
Agnolo di Tura & the Plague:
  • In Agnolo di Tura's town of Siena the plague raged from April until October and, according to the Cronica Senese (of Agnolo di Tura), 80,000 people died in those seven months.
Famous Quotes & Passages:
"The bodies were sparsely covered that the dogs dragged them forth and devoured them . And believing it to be the end of the world, no one wept for the dead, for all expected to die." ~ Agnolo di Turo, Siena, 1348

"The mortality in Siena began in May. It was a cruel and horrible thing. . . . It seemed that almost everyone became stupefied seeing the pain. It is impossible for the human tongue to recount the awful truth. Indeed, one who did not see such horribleness can be called blessed. The victims died almost immediately. They would swell beneath the armpits and in the groin, and fall over while talking. Father abandoned child, wife husband, one brother another; for this illness seemed to strike through breath and sight. And so they died. None could be found to bury the dead for money or friendship. Members of a household brought their dead to a ditch as best they could, without priest, without divine offices. In many places in Siena great pits were dug and piled deep with the multitude of dead. And they died by the hundreds, both day and night, and all were thrown in those ditches and covered with earth. And as soon as those ditches were filled, more were dug. I, Agnolo di Tura . . . buried my five children with my own hands. . . . And so many died that all believed it was the end of the world." ~ Agnolo di Turo, Siena, 1348 (Ref 2)

"And I, Agnolo di Tura, carried with my own hands my five little sons to the pit; and what I did many others did likewise." ~ Agnolo di Turo, Siena,
"Father abandoned child, wife husband, one brother another; for this illness seemed to strike through the breath and sight. And so they died. And none could be found to bury the dead for money or friendship. Members of a household brought their dead to a ditch as best they could, without priest, without divine offices ... great pits were dug and piled deep with the multitude of dead. And they died by the hundreds both day and night... And as soon as those ditches were filled more were dug ... And I, Agnolo di Tura, called the Fat, buried my five children with my own hands. And there were also those who were so sparsely covered with earth that the dogs dragged them forth and devoured many bodies throughout the city. There was no one who wept for any death, for all awaited death. And so many died that all believed it was the end of the world. This situation continued [from May] until September." ~ Agnolo di Turo, Siena.

"With these covert evils, the moon is revealed by the sun." [referring to Florence's real motives towards Siena] ~ Agnolo di Turo, Siena.

References:
  • William Bowsky, ed. The Black Death, 1971, pp. 13-14.
  • (Ed: D.S.) adapted from: Deaux, George. The Black Death 1347. New York: Weybright and Talley, 1969. pp. 85ff.
  • William Caferro. Mercenary companies and the decline of Siena, Issue 1, 1998, JHU Press

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Hundred Years War (1337-1453)

The Hundred Years' War Facts:
  • Conflict between France and England lasting 116 years (1337 to 1453).
  • War was primarily over claims by the English kings to the French throne.
  • The war finally ended in the expulsion of the English from France, excluding the Calais Pale.
  • Essentially the war was a series of conflicts (phases, see below).
  • Although primarily a dynastic royal conflict, the war also gave impetus to French and English ideas of nationality.
  • The war also saw new weapons & tactics with replacement of the older system of feudal armies (with their associated heavy cavalry).
Hundred Years War Phases:
  • Edwardian War (1337–1360)
  • Caroline War (1369–1389)
  • Lancastrian War (1415–1429)
  • Joan of Arc influenced conflict (1429–1453)

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Famous People of Middle Ages (Medieval)

Alfred, King
Adelard of Bath
Alaric the Visigoth
Alfred the Great
Attila the Hun
Alexius Comnenus
Arnold von Winkelried
Canute the Great
Charlemagne
Charles Martle and Pepin
Christine de Pisan (Christine de Pizan)
The Cid
Clovis
Dante Alighieri
Edward the Black Prince
Edward the Confessor
Egbert the Saxon
Frederick Barbarossa
Genseric the Vandal
Geoffrey Chauser
Guy de Chauliac
John Gutenberg
Harun-al-Raschid
Henry the Second
Henry the Fifth
Henry the Fowler
Heraclius Augustus
Ivan the Terrible
Joan of Arc
Justinian
Louis the Ninth
Marco Polo
Miamonides
Mohammed
Pepin
Peter Abelard
Peter the Hermit
Petrarch
Richard the Lionheart
Robert Bruce
Rollo the Viking
St Augustine
St Francis of Assisi
St Thomas Aquinas
Tamerlane
Theodoric the Great
Theodoric the Ostrogoth
Warwick the King-Maker
William of Ockham
William the Conqueror
William Tell


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Middle Ages (European History) Medieval Times

Basic Facts:
  • Period in history which lasted for roughly a millennium.
  • Commonly dated from the fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century to the beginning of the Early Modern Period in the 16th century.
  • Adjective form is medieval or mediæval.
  • Falls in the historical zone between the age of classical civilization of Antiquity (preceding) and the modern period (following).
Important Features:
  • Division of Western Christianity in the Reformation.
  • Associated with the rise of humanism in the Italian Renaissance.
  • Also included the beginnings of European overseas expansion.
  • First evidence of sustained urbanization of northern and western Europe.
  • Many modern European countries owe their origins to events unfolding in the Middle Ages.
Other Facts:

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Agimet of Geneva Confession (October 20, 1348)

The following is a translation from the Latin of a confession made under torture by Agimet of Geneva. It is typical of the confessions extorted from Jews and forwarded to other towns.
The Confession of Agimet of Geneva, Châtel, October 20, 1348

The year of our Lord 1348.

On Friday, the 10th of the month of October, at Châtel, in the castle thereof, there occurred the judicial inquiry which was made by order of the court of the illustrious Prince, our lord, Amadeus, Count of Savoy, and his subjects against the Jews of both sexes who were there imprisoned, each one separately. [Jews were sometimes imprisoned separately to prevent suicide.] This was done after public rumor had become current and a strong clamor had arisen because of the poison put by them into the wells, springs, and other things which the Christians use-demanding that they die, that they are able to be found guilty and, therefore, that they should be punished. Hence this their confession made in the presence of a great many trustworthy persons.

Agimet the Jew, who lived at Geneva and was arrested at Châtel, was there put to the torture a little and then he was released from it. And after a long time, having been subjected again to torture a little, he confessed in the presence of a great many trustworthy persons, who are later mentioned. To begin with it is clear that at the Lent just passed Pultus Clesis de Ranz had sent this very Jew to Venice to buy silks and other things for him. When this came to the notice of Rabbi Peyret, a Jew of Chamb6ry who was a teacher of their law, he sent for this Agimet, for whom he had searched, and when he had come before him he said: "We have been informed that you are going to Venice to buy silk and other wares. Here I am giving you a little package of half a span in size which contains some prepared poison and venom in a thin, sewed leather-bag. Distribute it among the wells, cisterns, and springs about Venice and the other places to which you go, in order to poison the people who use the water of the aforesaid wells that will have been poisoned by you, namely, the wells in which the poison will have been placed."

Agimet took this package full of poison and carried it with him to Venice, and when he came there he threw and scattered a portion of it into the well or cistern of fresh water which was there near the German House, in order to poison the people who use the water of that cistern. And he says that this is the only cistern of sweet water in the city. He also says that the mentioned Rabbi Peyret promised to give him whatever he wanted for his troubles in this business. Of his own accord Agimet confessed further that after this had been done he left at once in order that he should not be captured by the citizens or others, and that he went personally to Calabria and Apulia and threw the above mentioned poison into many wells. He confesses also that he put some of this same poison in the well of the streets of the city of Ballet.

He confesses further that he put some of this poison into the public fountain of the city of Toulouse and in the wells that are near the [Mediterranean] sea. Asked if at the time that he scattered the venom and poisoned the wells, above mentioned, any people had died, he said that he did not know inasmuch as he had left everyone of the above mentioned places in a hurry. Asked if any of the Jews of those places were guilty in the above mentioned matter, he answered that he did not know. And now by all that which is contained in the five books of Moses and the scroll of the Jews, he declared that this was true, and that he was in no wise lying, no matter what might happen to him.

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Agimet of Geneva (Jewish Merchant, 14th Century AD)

Agimet of Geneva Basic Facts:
  • Jewish merchant who had been buying silks in Venice in 1348.
  • Was arrested in Chatel, on the shores of Lake Geneva, and tried on October 20, 1348.
  • Confessed that he had deliberately poisoned the wells of Venice with a 'special powder' which had produced the plague (Black Death).
  • The confession was extracted after considerable torture, and was almost certainly a false confession to stop the agony he was experiencing.
  • To prevent further torment before his execution, Agimet was coerced to say that Rabbi Peyret of Chambery (near Geneva) was the chief conspirator of the poisoning plot.
  • The translation of the official confession (obtained under torture) by Agimet of Geneva is shown here.
  • In the aftermath of Agimet's "confession," ~900 Jews of Strasbourg were burned alive on February 14, 1349.

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Jean de Venette (French Chronicler) 1308-1369

Jean de Venette Demography:
  • Birth - 1308
  • Birthplace - Venette, near Compiègne.
  • Death - 1369
  • Occupation - French chronicler
  • Nationality - French
Jean de Venette Basic Facts:
  • French chronicler.
  • Valuable eyewitness reports of events in central France during his life, especially regarding the Black Death.
  • He was born of peasant origin.
  • Jean joined the Carmelite order where he was elected prior of the Carmelite convent in Paris (1339).
  • By 1341 he was appointed provincial of France for the Carmelite order, a post he held until 1366.
  • Jean was also teaching as a master of theology at the University of Paris.
  • He had much sympathy for the peasants of the time and was also critical of both the monarchy & the feudal lords.
  • He was also an eyewitness of most of the chronicled events he wrote about.
Jean de Venette Publications:
  • Composed (in 1360) a short history of the Carmelites up to 1240.
  • Latin chronicle, covering the period of 1340–68, was a continuation of the work started by Guillaume de Nangis.
  • Wrote an unpublished religious poem, the Roman des trois Maries (c. 1347).

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The Plague (Black Death) Documentary (History Channel)

Documentary about The Plague (Black Death) from the History Channel.

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Video Concept List:
1310, 1340s, 1346, 1347, 1348, 1349, 1350, 1350s, 1357, 14th Century, 1900, 2005, 33 Days, Abstinence, After Flagellant Parties, Agimet, Agnolo Di Tura, Ale, Alignment of Planets, Anthrax, Antibiotics, Arable Land, Atone, Authority, Avignon, Balance of Elements, Bandits, Barcelona, Beijing, Biological Warfare, Bishop of Bath & Wells, Black Death, Black Sea, Bleeding with Leeches, Bones, Bordeaux, Bread, Bread Pudding, Brotherhood of the Flagellants, Bubo, Buboes, Bubonic Plague, Burial Rights, Butter, Caffa, Calais, California, Caspian Sea, Castile, Catapult, Catastrophe, Catholic Church, Cats, Cheap Land, Chills, China, Chipmunks, Chirurgia Magna (Great Surgery), Church, Civilisation, Cleric, Cloth Industry, Coastal Waterways, Concubine, Confession, Constantinople, Cooked Onions, Cornwall, Cough, Country Estate, Crecy, Cressy, Curses, Cycle, Danse Macabre, David Nirenberg, Death, Dirt Floors, Dispose of the Dead, DNA, Dock Area, Drinking, Ebola Virus, Edward III (of England), Emergency Measures, Emotion, England, Esther (Jewess), Europe, European History, Extremists, Evil, Faith, Fallow Land, False Confession, Family, Family Ties, Famine, Farms, Fear, Fevers, Figs, Fires, Flagellants, Flea, Flea Bite, Florence, France, Freiburg, French Chronicler, Funerals, Furs, Gabrielle de' Mussis, Gambling, Garbage, Geneva, Genoese Ships, Gentry, German Jewish Community, Germany, Giovanni Boccaccio, God, God's Vengence, Graham Mooney, Grain, Graveyard, Ground Squirrels, Gutenberg's Printing Press, Guy de Chauliac, Haemorrhaging, Hail, Harbour, Holy Mother of God, Heresy, Human Nature, Hundred Years War, Hysteria, Iberian Peninsula, Ibn Khaldun, Ignorance, India, Individual Constitution, Industrialisation, Institutions, Internal, Haemorrhaging, Internist, Islamic World, Italian Mainland, Italian Merchants, Italy, Jean de Venette, Jewish Cemetery, Jewish Community, Jews, Jews of Poland, Joan (Daughter of Edward III), Joann Moran-Cruz, John Aberth, John Kelly, Journal, Jupiter, Kelly DeVries, Ken Gage, King Casimir The Great, King of England, King of France, King of Poland, Knights, Krakow, Labour Crisis, Labour Saving Devices, Land, Land Owners, Last Rights, Lechering, Leeches, Legend, Logic, Loire Valley, London, Loot, Looting, Lower Mongolia, Lungs, Lymph Nodes, Man, Mars, Marseille, Master of Errors, Matteo Villani, Meat, Medical Mysteries, Medicine, Medieval, Medieval Europe, Medieval People, Medieval Science, Medieval Society, Mercenary, Merchant Ships, Messianic, Messina, Miasma, Miasmatic, Michele da Piazza, Middle Ages, Military Men, Mills, Miracles, Monastery, Monastery in Montpellier, Mongol, Mongols, Mongol Empire, Mongolian Steppes, Montpellier, Montpellier Mass Grave, Moral Authority, Mortality, Multi-organ Failure, Nobles, Normandy, North Africa, North America, Noxious Vapours, October 1349, Orchards, Ordinance, Pandemic, , apacy, Papal Court, Paris, Peasants, Pedro (Prince of Spanish Castile), Penance, Persecution, Personal Physician, Pestilence, Petrarch, Philippe VI (King of France), Pistoia, Pits, Plague, Pneumonic Plague, Plague Pneumonia, Poisoned Rivers, Poisoned Wells, Poisoning, Poland, Poor, Pope, Pope Clement VI, Poverty, Practical Medicine, Priarie Dogs, Priests, Princess Joan, Printing Press, Private Chaplains, Processions, Prosperity, Prostitutes, Psychological Transformation, Punishment, Purple Bubo, Questioning, Rain of Frogs, Rat Populations, Rats, Relatives, Religion, Religious Fervor, Religious Hysteria, Renaissance, Rhine River, Rich, Richard Johnson, River Rhone, Rock Stars, Rome, Royal Marriage, Russia, Sailors, Saint Valentine's Day, Saturn, Saudia Arabia, Scalping, Scandinavia, Scandinavian Peninsula, Science, Seaport, Septic Shock, Serfs, Servant, Shell Shock, Sicily, Siege, Siena, Silk, Sin, Skeletons Dancing, Skepticism, Social Stigma, Society, Soldiers, South Africa, South America, Spain, Spices, Steppes, Strasbourg, Superstition, Surge Capacity, Surgeon, Survivors, Switzerland, Teeth, Textiles, The Church, The Great Pestilence, The Plague, Theology, Theoretical Medicine, Tibet, Tooth Pulp, Trade, Trade Routes, Trade Ships, Troubadour, Tuscany, Unemployed, United States, Upper Classes, Urban Area, Urban Centres, Valuable Goods, Vegetables, Venice, Volga River, Wages, War, Whips, Wickedness, Witch Hunt, Woman, Workforce. World War, Yeast, Yersinia pestis


Related Links:
The Plague (Bubonic Plague, Yersinia pestis)


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Black Death Europe Images (1347-1351)

Below are a selection of images relating to the Black Death (1347-1351), caused by bubonic plague, in video format.



Related Links:
The Plague (Bubonic Plague, Yersinia pestis)


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