Sunday

Kings Play Chess On Fine Glass Stools (Mnemonic)


Kings Play Chess On Fine Glass Stools (KPCOFGS) is another mnemonic for remembering the classification of living organisms. See other Kings Play Chess mnemonics.

Kings - Kingdom
Play - Phylum
Chess - Class
On - Order
Fine - Family
Glass - Genus
Stools - Species

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Image - Stage Stool by PortableChurch (cc)


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Urban Youth Chimpanzee (Image by Julia Malanjina)



"Urban Youth Chimpanzee" a great image created by Julia Malanjina.

Key features of the picture include the visual references to nose piercing, tongue piercing, facial piercing, ear piercing, earring, skull ring, studded wrist band & tomahawk hairstyle.

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Phylum (Biology Classification)

Basic Phylum Facts:
  • There is no clear definition for phylum.
  • The plural of phylum is phyla.
  • In biology, a phylum is a taxonomic rank below Kingdom and above Class.
  • It should be noted that "Phylum" is also the equivalent of the botanical term "Division".
  • The number of phyla also varies from author to author.
  • With the new analytical techniques available the relationships between different phyla is becoming more clear.
  • However due to the changeability of phyla some biologists believe the concept of a phylum should be abandoned in favour of cladistics.
  • Some animal groups have even lost their phylum status (see below).
  • There are currently 36 recognised animal phyla.
Animal Phyla:
Acanthocephala | Acoelomorpha | Annelida | Arthropoda | Brachiopoda | Bryozoa | Chaetognatha | Chordata | Cnidaria | Ctenophora | Cycliophora | Echinodermata | Echiura | | Entoprocta | Gastrotricha | Gnathostomulida | Hemichordata | Kinorhyncha | Loricifera | Micrognathozoa | Mollusca | Nematoda | Nematomorpha | Nemertea | Onychophora | Orthonectida | Phoronida | Placozoa | Platyhelminthes | Porifera | Priapulida | Rhombozoa | Rotifera | Sipuncula | Tardigrada | Xenoturbellida

Animal Groups Which Have Lost Phylum Rank Status:
Aschelminthes | Craniata | Cephalochordata | Cephalorhyncha | Enterepneusta | Gephyra | Mesozoa | Myxozoa | Pentastomida | Pogonophora | Pterobranchia | Symplasma | Urochordata | Vestimentifera


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Hideaki Tomoyori (Mnemonist, Pi Memorist)

Hideaki Tomoyori is a memorist & mnemonist. He is a previous world record holder for remembering pi to 40,000 decimal places in 1987.

Hideaki Tomoyori Demographics:
  • Born - September 30, 1932.
  • Birthplace - Yokohama, Japan
  • Nationality - Japanese
  • Marriage - Married to Mitsuko Tomoyori (see picture).

Hideaki Tomoyori Mnemonic Ability:
  • Learned pi by breaking it down in to small chunks of 10 numbers at a time.
  • Associated the sound of a number with a particular word.
  • The Words are then made into sentences, and particular images are made.
  • To bring back the memory he first thinks of a single key word, this then reminds him of an image and then a sentence, which reminds him of the exact sequence of numbers.
  • Advises good timing in reviewing what he has learned.
  • Reviews information at longer and longer intervals - ie. after a minute, then 10 minutes, then 1 hour ...
  • The best time to review is when you feel you have forgotten about 20% of the learned material.
  • First inspiration to improve his memory came from a street performer - "who displayed a special memory trick. He wrote on a blackboard a string of numbers spoken at random by some passers-by. Then, without looking at the blackboard, he was able to recite the numbers perfectly."
Hideaki Tomoyori Mnemonic Feats:
  • Memorizing pi up to one thousand places took me three years.
  • To remember pi to 40,000 decimal places it took him about ten years.
  • Hideaki recited pi from memory to 40,000 places - taking 17 hours 21 minutes, including breaks totaling 4 hours 15 minutes, on 9-10 of March in 1987 at Tsukuba University Club House.
  • Currently ranked 4th in the world for reciting greatest number of decimal places of pi.
Hideaki Tomoyori Other Feats:
  • Has been recorded as solving a Rubik's cube in 52.31 seconds.
  • Combined time for husband and wife solving of Rubik's cube is 11th fastest in the world (source).
Research Study on Hideaki Tomoyori (2006):
  • Tomoyori completed the numerical tests slightly better than the control group.
  • He failed to do better than the control group in the verbal tests.
  • Concluded that he possesses no superior memorization ability.
  • His staggering memorization of pi is the result of superior technique and extensive practice.
References:
  • Interview with Hideaki Tomoyori (September 1988, NHK Radio Japan) (link)
  • Takahashi, Masanobu, Satoru Saito, Hiroyuki Shimizu, and Hideaki Tomoyori (2006). One percent ability and ninety-nine percent perspiration: A study of a Japanese memorist. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition, 32, 1195-1200.
  • How Hideaki Tomoyori Memorized Pi to Over 10,000 Digits (link)
Image Credit - http://stepanov.lk.net/mnemo/tomoyoe.html

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Plague of Emmaus (Plague of Amwas) 639 AD

Plague of Emmaus Facts:
  • The Plague of Emmaus (طاعون عمواس in Arabic).
  • Also known as the Plague of Amwas.
  • Possibly an outbreak of bubonic plague caused by Yersinia pestis.
Historical Context:
  • The plague occurred in 639 AD, in the town of Emmaus (Amwas), in Palestine.
  • The illness struck shortly after Emmaus's conquest by the forces of the Rashidun Caliphate (they having already set up a military camp there).
  • Caused the death of many prominent companions of the Messenger Muhammad.
  • Estimated that 25,000 people died in this outbreak.
  • Now considered part of the outbreaks of plague, that followed the Plague of Justinian (541–542 AD), extending through to the 8th century.
Mu'adh b. Jabal (Plague Martyr):
  • Mu'adh b. Jabal, a prominent ascetic, was officially a made a plague martyr for staying in the town and exhorting that the plague was "a blessing from your lord, the prayer of His prophet and the manner in which the righteous ones prior to you have died."
  • Mu'ah is then said to have prayed "O God. Give Mu'adh and the family of Mu'adh the most generous portion of this plague, since You are capable of everything."
  • His son, Abd al-Rahman b. Muljam al-Muradi, was soon to catch the plague and die.
  • Mu'adh b. Jabal, then caught the plague and subsequently died.
  • One beneficial effect of plague martyrdom, and the example of Mu'adh b. Jabal, was that this probably limited the deadly spread of the plague in the Muslim world (a form of quarantine).
References:
  • Dols, Michael W. "Plague in Early Islamic History". Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 94, No. 3 (Jul-Sep, 1974), pp. 371-383.
  • David Cook. Martyrdom in Islam (Themes in Islamic History), Cambridge University Press (Hardcover, 15 Jan 2007), pp. 28-29.

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Septicaemic Plague (Yersinia pestis)

Septicaemic Plague Definition:
  • A gram negative septicaemia illness caused by Yersinia pestis.
  • It is one of the 3 main forms of plague.
  • It is usually contracted from the bite of a Yersinia pestis infected flea.
Pathophysiology
  • This plague illness may occur as a complication of bubonic plague and pneumonic plague.
  • Bacteria enter the blood from the lymphatic system, respiratory system or directly.
Symptoms & Complications:
  • Chills
  • Delirium
  • Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)
  • High fever
  • Hypotension
  • Headache
  • Hepatosplenomegaly
  • Lethargy
  • Purple discoloration of skin (patches)
  • Vomiting
  • Seizures (in children)
  • Septic shock
  • Tachycardia
  • ARDS
Prognosis:
  • Almost always fatal.
Differential Diagnosis:
  • Septicemia, other
  • Meningococcemia
Treatment:
  • Intravenous antibiotics - Streptomycin / Gentamicin / Chloramphenicol
  • Circulatory support, dialysis & ventilatory support may be required.
Famous Suffers:

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Image credit- Hawaii State Archives - Hawaii plague victim, circa 1899.

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