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Lexulous (Word Game)

Lexulous is the new name for an online word game formerly known as Scrabulous. The game is based on the popular commercial Scrabble game owned by Hasbro Inc., Pawtucket, RI, USA.

The Lexulous game is available at www.lexulous.com, and is also playable on Facebook.

Lexulous was developed by the Agarwalla brothers, Rajat & Jayant in 2005.

Rajat & Jayant Agarwalla own RJ Softwares (headquartered in Kolkata, India), the developer of Lexulous

The game uses an Elo rating system.


Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
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Elo Rating System

Elo rating system is a method for calculating the relative skill levels of players in two-player zero sum games. The system is named after US physicist Arpad Elo (19031992) and was initially developed as a chess rating tool.

Current uses of the Elo rating system (with modifications) include:
  • American college basketball
  • American college football
  • Association Football
  • Battleforge (MMORTS)
  • Chess (FIDE rating)
  • Czech Go Federation
  • DailyGammon (online Backgammon)
  • European Go Federation
  • FIDE (chess)
  • FIFA Women's World Rankings
  • Go Associations (multiple)
  • GoldToken (online Backgammon)
  • Guild Wars (online role playing game)
  • Internet Chess Club
  • Lexulous - online word game
  • Major league baseball
  • Multiplayer computer games
  • North American National Scrabble Association
  • Play65 (online Backgammon)
  • Puzzle Pirates (game)
  • US Chess Federation rating
  • VogClub (online Backgammon)
  • Vendetta Online (online role playing game)
  • World Football Elo Ratings
  • Yahoo! Games
The Elo rating system is statistically based. The original major assumption was that the chess performance of each player in each game is a normally distributed random variable. Also, Elo felt that a player's true skill would be the mean of that player's performance random variable. The players' performance is inferred from the wins, draws and losses they have against other rated players. A number of simplifying assumptions were also made by Elo to enable ease of rating calculation as this sytem was developed before modern computing became available.

Professor Mark Glickman has proposed a more sophisticated statistical rating system called the Glicko Rating System which estimates a similar rating and also calculates a rating deviation (similar to standard deviation).


Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
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Glicko Rating System

The Glicko Rating System was developed by Professor Mark E. Glickman from Boston University. The system was initially considered as a thesis topic whilst Glickman was a statistics major at Princeton University. Glickman subsequently wrote a Harvard doctoral dissertation where he examined the deficiencies of the chess Elo rating system and also devised an alternative ratings system which he called the "Glicko System" (a homage to Professor Arpad Elo?).

The Glicko system is used by:
  • Australian Chess Federation (ACF)
  • Chess.com
  • Numerous online chess sites i.e.
  • Free Internet Chess Server
One of the benefits of Glickman’s Glicko System is that it also recognizes that a players' rating is only an estimation of their true strength. The Glicko System uniquely also calculates an estimate of the degree of uncertainty regarding that rating, called the rating deviation (RD) which is similar in concept to standard deviation. The higher the rating deviation the greater the uncertainty regarding the players' rating.

In the Glicko system the rating changes, following a game, are not balanced as they usually are in the Elo system. With the Glicko system, the amount by which the opponent's rating changes is governed by both players' RD's.

Further Reading:
Mark Glickman's description of the Glicko system
Mark Glickman's technical paper on the Glicko system.
New Glicko-2 System (improvement on the original Glicko system).



Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
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