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Oseltamivir (Tamiflu, Antiviral Drug)


Oseltamivir (Tamiflu) Facts:
  • Antiviral drug that slows the spread of influenza virus between cells in the body.
  • It stops newly produced virus from chemically cutting (neuraminidase inhibitor) ties with its host cell.
  • Early treatment is important as neuraminidase protein inhibition is more effective within the first 48 hours.
  • Worldwide, from October 2009, only 39 of > 10,000 samples of 2009 pandemic H1N1 swine flu have shown resistance to Oseltamivir.
Oseltamivir Clinical Uses:
  • Prevention & treatment of influenzavirus A & influenzavirus B infection.
  • Oseltamivir is approved for use in persons age 1 year & over.
  • The usual adult dosage, for active infection, is 75 mg twice daily for 5 days.
  • The treatment should begin within 2 days of the appearance of flu symptoms.
  • Reduced doses are needed for children & people with kidney impairment.
  • Can be given as a preventive, i.e. community outbreak or close contact with flu case.
  • The prophylaxis dose is 75 mg once daily (people aged 13 years & older), safe & effective for up to 6 weeks.
Oseltamivir Pharmacology:
  • Taken orally as a pro-drug which becomes active after passing through the liver.
Oseltamivir Side Effects:
  • Common adverse drug reactions (ADRs) (occurring in >1% of trial participants) include:
    • Abdominal pain
    • Diarrhea,
    • Headache
    • Nausea
    • Vomiting
  • Rare ADRs include:
    • Anaphylaxis
    • Hepatitis & elevated liver enzymes
    • Rash
    • Stevens-Johnson syndrome
Oseltamivir Commercial Factors:
  • Sold under the trade name Tamiflu.
  • Developed by C.U. Kim, W. Lew and X. Chen of US based Gilead Sciences (hold patent until 2016).
  • Marketed worldwide by the pharmaceutical company Hoffmann–La Roche (Roche).
  • Marketed by Chugai Pharmaceutical Co., in Japan, which is > 50% owned by Roche.
Oseltamivir History:
  • First orally active neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed.

Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
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