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Species (Biology Classification)



Definitions:

  • A group of organisms capable of interbreeding & also producing fertile offspring of both genders, and which are separated from other such groups with which interbreeding does not (typically) happen.
  • Some definitions focus on the similarity of the DNA or bioloogical morphology.
  • Some species are also further subdivided into subspecies.
Species Basic Facts:
  • In biology, a species is a taxonomic rank.
  • It is the basic rank of biological classification.
  • Estimated to be around 2-100 million different species.
  • When a species is named, it is placed within a genus.
  • The name for a species is a two-part name (binomial name) comprising Genus & species.
History of Species Concept:
  • Aristotle used the words genus & species to mean generic & specific categories.
  • Carolus Linnaeus (18th century) classified organisms according to differences in the form of reproductive structures.
  • Linnaeus strove to find organisms that were exemplary of the species; he then considered other non-exemplary organisms to be deviant.
  • Jean-Baptiste Lamarck (1809 Zoological Philosophy) gave a logical argument against creationism.
  • Charles Darwin in the 1860s introduced his natural selection idea which went on to surpass that of Lamarck.
  • Charles Darwin & Alfred Wallace produced the theory of evolution.
  • Gregor Mendel's important paper on genetics (published in 1866) was not fully appreciated until around 1900.
Range of Species Terms:
  • Biological / Isolation species
  • Biological / reproductive species
  • Cohesion species
  • Ecological species
  • Evolutionary / Darwinian species
  • Evolutionarily Significant Unit (ESU)
  • Genetic species
  • Mate-recognition species
  • Microspecies
  • Morphological species
  • Phenetic species
  • Phylogenetic / Cladistic
  • Recognition species
  • Typological species

Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
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