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Kingdom (Biology Classification)

Important Facts:
  • In biological taxonomy, Kingdom is a taxonomic rank.
  • Historically it is was the highest taxonomic rank.
  • In the new three-domain system of classification - Kingdom is the rank below domain.
  • The Kingdoms are divided into smaller groups called phyla.
  • There is some difference between USA and British-Australian textbooks regarding the number of Kingdoms (see below).
  • The taxonomy classifications are - Life - Domain - Kingdom - Phylum - Class - Order - Family - Genus - Species [LD-KPCOFGS]
  • A number of mnemonic systems have been developed to remember the taxonomy classification - see here.
History:
  • Carolus Linnaeus (1735) first distinguished two kingdoms of living things: Animalia for animals and Vegetabilia for plants.
  • Linnaeus also considered minerals - placing them in a 3rd kingdom - Mineralia.
  • Linnaeus then divided each kingdom into classes which were later grouped into phyla for animals & divisions for plants.
  • Haeckel (1866) proposed 3 Kingdoms - Animalia / Plantae / Protista.
  • Chatton (1925) proposed 2 groups - Eukaryote / Procaryote.
  • Copeland (1938) proposed 4 Kingdoms - Animalia / Plantae / Protoctista / Monera.
  • Whittaker (1969) proposed 5 Kingdoms - Animalia / Plantae / Fungi / Protista / Monera.
  • Woese (1977, 1990) proposed 2 Domains - Eukarya / Archaea / Bacteria.
5 Kingdom System (British / Australian):
  • Animalia
  • Plantae
  • Fungi
  • Protista
  • Prokaryota / Monera
6 Kingdom System (USA):
  • Animalia
  • Plantae
  • Fungi
  • Protista
  • Archea
  • Bacteria

Posted by ALCHEssMIST.
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